禅尺八 真理研究 ホームページ

The Zen Shakuhachi Truth Research Web Pages

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛• Denmark



Highlighted Pictures

Miscellaneous Matters

To be - or not to be:
     a 'Zen Buddhist Priest'?

The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis

The Kaidō Honsoku Evidence

Abbot Isshi's Letter to the
     Komusō Sandō Mugetsu

The Hotoke-gotoba Evidence

The Kakushin Legend

Myōan Taizan-ha Thought

Myōan Taizan-ha Notation

Quotations & Illustrations:
 •  India, China & Japan
 •  The West / Literature

My Profile / Biography

Contact Info

To the Front Page

Wave pattern

Wave - or particle?

Japanese Zen sand garden

Detail of Zen sand garden
at Daisen-in, Daitoku-ji, Kyōto
'Standing waves' ...
Early 16th century
Photo: T.O.


THE WEST / LITERATURE: Complete Bibliography

China 1 •
6000 B.C.-A.D. 500
China 2 • A.D. 500 ...
Japan 1 • 600-1233
Japan 2 • 1233-1477
Japan 3 • 1477-1560
Japan 4 • 1560-1614
Japan 5 • 1614-1664
Japan 6 • 1664-1767
Japan 7 • 1767-1883
Japan 8 • 1883 ...
The West / Literature

A complete bibliography can be found at page bottom.

"Think for a moment about sound how it has pitch, loudness, timbre and duration and how silence which is its nonexistent opposite has only duration. Duration structure."

"While studying music things get a little confused. Sounds are no longer just sounds, but are letters: A B C D E F G ."

"A sound is a sound. To realize this: One has to put a stop at studying music."

     John Cage, mid-20th century.

"The word zen, dhyana, appears first in the Chandagya Upanishad, and means "thinking," or rather, "meditating," the difference being all-important, for Zen means thinking with the body. - - - "

     Reginald Horace Blyth, 1960.
     Date of Chandagya Upanishad: Possibly before 1000 B.C.

"The self-organization of information is an aspect of the self-organization of life and the gestalts it produces are the gestalts of life. They are autonomous, as are the gestalts of other autopoetic system dynamics. They form their own world of symbolic representation of reality and are capable of emancipating themselves from this reality. Thus they can change and redesign reality. Self-organizing pragmatic information may interfere with and co-ordinate energetic and material processes outside of the system in which this information becomes structured.

Usually, this is expressed in the phrase: Mind over matter.
But this is true only to the extent that the matter/energy system to which this kind of mind belongs, namely the brain, remains excluded.

The mind of the human organism controls the inanimate and certain aspects of the animate world, but the mind of an ecosystem does not dominate its members - their dynamics is the mind of the ecosystem, just as the co-ordinated dynamics of ants is the mind of the ant colony.

Control and domination are dualistic notions - there is always a controller and a controlled. But mind is a non-dualistic notion which is inseparable from the matter in whose dynamics it expresses itself."

     Erich Jantsch, 1980.

"What is the meaning of Sui Zen?
Those in Japan who know are few
- most of their word books omit it!
Zen is to open the mind, to intuit
-  Sui is the flow of the breath, the wind ...
Sui Zen: Blown Meditation?
No, Sui is to blow the flute, make it ring!
Zen is the way of the skeptic ... yet,
knowing that sound of the Flute with No Holes
why would one plead for an answer?"

     Torsten Olafsson, 1986.

- - - "The idea that the practice of the arts, or of any skill for that matter, constitutes a Way (michi) is a defining characteristic of medieval Japanese cultural history. - - - "

- - - "Hence the Way is an existential praxis whose goal is not technical competence per se; beyond competence, there is a consummate praxis that is also, paradoxically, identified with the realm of freedom, of a "self-less," intuitive spontaneity equal to, because in harmony with, the universe. - - - "

     Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen in "Murmured Conversations",
     Introduction, p. 1 & p. 2, 2008.


"The deep questions we write out
are but marks in a dream.
When we wake up,
even the questioner is gone."

     Ikkyū Sōjun, Daitoku-ji, 1457.
     Trsl. by James E. Sanford, 1981.

Link to the previous page: Japan 8 • 1833 ...

Complete list of references for all Quotations & pictures pages:

Sonja Arntzen, translator: Ikkyū and the Crazy cloud anthology,
     a Zen poet of Medieval Japan. Foreword by Shūichi Katō.
     University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1986.
Helen Josephine Baroni: The illustrated encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism.
     The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., New York, 2002.
Christopher Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
     The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
     Printed Matter Press, Tokyo, 1986, 2008.
     Available at
R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 1: General Introduction.
     From the Upanishads to Huineng. The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1960.
R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 4: Mumonkan.
     The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1966, 1974.
Jørn Borup: Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism. Myōshinji, a living religion.
     Numen Book Series, Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2008.
C.R. Boxer: The Christian Century in Japan, 1549-1650.
     Carcarnet Press Limited, Manchester, 1993.
     First published in 1951 by The University of
     California Press & the Cambridge University Press.
William Bramsen: Japanese Chronological Tables.
     Printed at the "Seishi Bunsha" office, Tokyo, 1880.
John Cage: Silence - Lectures and Writings.
     Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, Conn., 1961, 1971.
Schuyler van R. Cammann: 'Types of Symbols in Chinese Art'.
     In: The American Anthropologist, 'Studies in Chinese Thought',
     Vol. 55, No. 55, Part 2, 1953.
Edmund Capon and William MacQuitty: Princes of Jade.
     Cardinal/Sphere Book, London, 1973.
Steven D. Carter: 'Chats with the Master:
     Selections from "Kenzai Zōdan".'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001),
     pp. 295-347.
Wing-tsit Chan: The Platform Scripture. The Basic Classic of
     Zen Buddhism. St. John's University Press, New York, 1963, 1975.
Cheng Te-k'un: 'Yin-Yang Wu-hsing and Han Art'.
     In: Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 20, 1-2, 1957.
Kiku Day: Remembrance of Things Past: Creating a repertoire
     for the archaic jinashi shakuhachi.
     PhD from SOAS, University of London, 2010
Kiku Day: 'The Changes in the Construction of the Jinashi Shakuhachi
     in the late 20th and early 21st Century.'
     In: European Shakuhachi Society Journal, July 1, 2011.
Kiku Day: 'The Effect of Meiji Government Policy on Traditional
     Japanese Music: The case of the shakuhachi.'
     In: 'Nineteenth Century Music Review', Cambridge,
     Volume 10, Issue 02, pp 265-292,
     Cambridge University Press, December 2013.
Max Deeg: 'Komusō and "Shakuhachi Zen". From Historical Legitimation
      to the Spiritualisation of a Buddhist denomination in the Edo Period.'
      In: 'Japanese Religions', Vol. 32 (1 & 2): pp. 7-38, 2007.
Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 2: Japan.
      Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
      World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.
Sir Charles Eliot: Japanese Buddhism. London, 1935.
      3rd impression, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1964.
Louis Frédéric: Japan Encyclopedia.
      Harvard University Press, 2005.
Ingrid Fritsch: Die Solo-Honkyoku der Tozan-Schule: Musik für
     Shakuhachi zwischen Tradition und Moderne Japans.
     In: Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Vol. 4,
     Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1979.
Fung Yu-lan: A Short History of Chinese Philosophy.
     The Free Press, New York & Collier-MacMillan Limited,
     London, 1948, 1968.
R.H. van Gulik: Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute.
     Sophia University, Tokyo, and The Charles E. Tuttle Company,
     Rutland, Tokyo, 1941, 1969.
Gunsho Ruijū, Vol. 28. First published in 1733 by Hanawa Hokiichi.
     Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1933.
Andreas Gutzwiller: Die Shakuhachi der Kinko-Schule.
     Bärenreiter - Kassel, Basel, London, 1983.
Andreas Gutzwiller: Shakuhachi. Aspects of History, Practice and
     Teaching. Ph.D., Wesleyan University, USA, 1974.
Andreas Gutzwiller & Gerald Bennett: 'The world of a single sound:
     basic structure of the music of the japanese flute shakuhachi.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 36-60.
Eta Harich-Schneider: A History of Japanese Music.
     Oxford University Press, London, 1973.
Hayashi Kenzō: Shōsōin gakki no kenkyū.
     Kazama Shobō, Tōkyō, 1964.
Carolyn Martha Haynes: Parody in the maikyōgen
     and the monogurui kyōgen. Ph.D. thesis.
     Cornell University, USA, 1988.
     Available online at
     Cat. no. AAT 8804579.
Bhikshuni Heng Ch'i, trsl.: The Shurangama Sutra, Vol. III.
     The Buddhist Text Translation Company,
     San Francisco, California, 1980.
Hisamatsu Shin'ichi: Zen and the Fine Arts.
     Kodansha International Ltd.,
     Tokyo, New York & San Fransisco, 1971.
Frank Hoff: Song, Dance and Storytelling: Aspects of the
     Performing Arts in Japan.
     Cornell East Asia Series Number 15, 1978.
Hori Ichirō: 'On the Concepot of Hijiri (Holy Man).'
     In: Numen 5, 2 (April), pp. 128-160; Numen 5, 3 (September), pp. 199-232, 1958.
Victor Sōgen Hori: Zen Sand. The Book of Capping Phrases
     for Kōan Practice.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2003.
Gregg W. Howard: 'Musico-religious implications of some
     Buddhist views of sound and music in the Sūrangama Sūtra.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 95-101.
Nam-lin Hur: "Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan:
     Buddhism, Anti-Christianity, and the Danka System."
     Harvard East Asian Monographs 282, Harvard University Asia
     Center, Cambridge, Mass. & London, 2007, 550 pages.
     Link to an online version of the Introduction:
     "The Rise of Funerary Buddhism in Tokugawa Japan"
Ide Yukio: 'Chūse shakuhachi tsuikō'.
     In: Research reports of the Kōchi University. Humanities.
     Vol. 41, 1-10, Kōchi, 1992-12-27.
Ikeda Juzan shū: Taizan-fu shūi. Tokyo, 1985.
Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū.
     Facsimile of a late 15th century manuscript.
     Ed. & publ. by Okumura Jūbei, Kyoto, 1966.
Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū, Kyōunshishū, Jikaishū.
     Rev. & annotated by Nakamura Tamaki.
     Gendai shichōsha, Tokyo, 1976.
Imaeda Aishin: Zenshū no rekishi.
     Shibundō, Tokyo, 1962.
Inagaki Ihaku, Izui Seizan & Takahashi Ryochiku, editors:
      Myōan Sanjūnana-sei Tanikita Muchiku-shū.
      Taizan-fu shūi. Tanikita Renzō, Kyoto, 1981.
Inoura Yoshinobu & Kawatake Toshio: The Traditional Theatre of Japan.
     Tokyo, 1981.
Henry Johnson: The Shakuhachi. Roots and Routes.
      Published by Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2014.
Kamisangō Yūkō: "Shakuhachi no rekishi."
     In Hōgaku Taikei Vol. 4, pp. 7-16, Tokyo, 1971.
Kamisangō Yūkō: "Shakuhachi gaku ryakushi:
     suizen no rikai no tame ni". In descriptive notes for
     "Suizen: Chikuho ryū ni miru fuke shakuhachi no keifu."
     Nippon Columbia LP recording KX 7001-3: pp. 9-22, Tokyo, 1974.
K'ao Ku (Chinese periodical of archaeology) 1974, Vol. 1.
     K'ao Ku Publishing Co., Beijing, February 1974.
Jay Keister: 'The Shakuhachi as Spiritual Tool: A Japanese Buddhist Instrument in the West.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2004).
Donald Keene: Essays in Idleness. The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō.
     Columbia University Press, 1998.
Kishibe Shigeo: The Traditional Music of Japan.
     Kokusai Bunko Shinkokai, Tokyo, 1966.
Kitahara Ikuya, Masumoto Misao & Matsuda Akira:
     The Encyclopedia of Musical Instruments: The Shakuhachi.
     Ongakusha, Tokyo, 1990.
Kiyū Shōran. Comp. by Kitamura Nobuyo (1784-1856), first publ. in 1830.
     Reprint by Seikōkan Shuppanbu, Tokyo, 1933.
Koide Kōhei: Nihon no dentō ongaku.
     Ongaku no tomosha, Tokyo;, 1970.
Koji Ruien. Ruien Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1896-1914. Reduced size reprint ed.
     by Jungū Shichō, Tokyo, 1927-1930. Latest edition: Yoshikawa
     Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1967-1971. Vol. 9: Section on Religion.
     Vols. 32 & 35: Section on Music.
Koma no Chikazane: Kyōkunshō.
     Original work completed in 1233. Publ. in 2 vols. by
     Nihon Koten Zenshū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1928.
Kondō Ichitarō & Charles S. Terry: The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
     by Hokusai. Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1968.
Kenneth Kraft: Eloquent Zen: Daito and Early Japanese Zen.
     University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992, 1997.
Kurihara Kōta: Shakuhachi Shikō. Chikuyūsha, Tokyo, 1918, 1975.
Riley Kelly Lee: 'FU HO U vs. DO RE MI. The Technology of Notation
     Systems and Implications of Change in the
     Shakuhachi Tradition of Japan.'
     In: Asian Music East and Southeast Asia, 19, 2,
     Spring, 1988/Summer, 1988, pp. 71-81.
Riley Kelly Lee: 'Shakuhachi honkyoku notation:
     Written sources in an oral tradition.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 18-35.
Riley Kelly Lee: Yearning for the Bell: A Study of
     Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition.
     Ph.D. thesis, University of Sidney, 1993.
     Available online at:
James Legge: The Texts of Taoism.
     Reprinted from Sacred Books of the East, vols. 39 and 40,
     Oxford, 1891. Julian Press, New York, 1961.
Gunnar Jinmei Linder:
     Deconstructing Tradition in Japanese Music. A Study of Shakuhachi,
     Historical Authenticity and Transmission of Tradition.
     Ph.d. dissertation, Department of Oriental Languages,
     Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2012.
Dennis Eugene Lishka: Buddhist Wisdom and Its Expression as Art:
     The Dharma of the Zen Master Takuan.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1976. Purchasable at:
     UMI Dissertation Services - Cat. no.: 7708798.
John Daido Loori: The True Dharma Eye.
      Zen Master Dōgen's Three Hundred Kōans.
      Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, 2005.
Lu K'uan Y?: The Secrets of Chinese Meditation.
     Rider & Company, London, 1964, 1975.
Machida Kashō: 'Japanese Music and Drama in the Meiji Period.'
     In Vol. III of Japanese Culture in the Meiji Era, compiled and
     edited by Komiya Toyotaka, translated and adapted by
     Donald Keene & Edward G. Seidensticker.
     Ōbunsha, Tōkyō, 1956, pp. 370-377.
William P. Malm: Japanese Music and Musical Instruments.
     1st edition. Tokyo, New York & London, 1959.
William P. Malm: Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments.
     New edition. Tokyo, New York & London, 2000.
Tomohiro Matsuda, ed., et al.:
     A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts.
     Nichiren Shoshu International Center, Tokyo, 1983.
Daigan Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga: Foundation of Japanese
     Buddhism. Vol. I: The Aristocratic Age. Vol. II: The Mass Move.
     ment. Buddhist Books International, Los Angeles, Tokyo, 1974, 1976.
Dan E. Mayers, editor: Annals of the International Shakuhachi Society. Vol. 1.
     Sussex, England: The International Shakuhachi Society, 1990.
Dan E. Mayers, editor: Annals of the International Shakuhachi Society. Vol. 2.
     The International Shakuhachi Society, 2005.
Mikami Sanji: 'Fuke-shū ni tsuite'.
     In: Shigaku zasshi 13, no. 4, 1902, pp. 61-76,
     & Shigaku zasshi 13, no. 5, 1902, pp. 64-82.
Michel Mohr: 'Imagining Indian Zen: Tōrei's Commentary on the
     Ta-mo-to-lo ch'an ching and the Rediscovery of
     Early Meditation Techniques during the Tokugawa Era.'
     In: Steven Heine & Dale S. Wright, eds.: Zen Classics.
     Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism.
     Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 2006.
H. Müller: 'Einige Notitzen über die Japanische Musik.'
     In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Natur- und
     Völkerkunde Ostasiens, I, fasc. 6, Tōkyō, 1876, pp. ?-?.
Nakatsuka Chikuzen: 'Fuke-shŪ no seiritsu.'
     In Sankyoku No. 188, Tokyo, Nov. 1937, pp. 20-31.
Nakatsuka Chikuzen: Kinko-ryū Shakuhachi Shikan.
     Nihon Ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1979.
Hubert Nearman: Shōbogenzō. A Trainee's Translation of
     Great Master Dōgen's Spiritual Masterpiece.
     Shasta Abbey Press, California, USA, 2007.
Joseph Needham: Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 4.
     Physics and Physical Technology: Sound (Acoustics).
     Cambridge At the University Press, Cambridge, 1962.
Nihon Kokugo Dai-jiten. Nihon Dai-jiten Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1973-1975.
Swami Nikhilananda, trsl.: The Māndūkyopanishad with Gaudapāda's 
     Kārikā and Shankara's Commentary.
     Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama, Mysore, 1936, 1968.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto monogatari.
     Chūō Kōronsha, Tokyo, 1971, 1976.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Azekura Shobō,, Tokyo, 1956.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1982.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: 'Komusō no ura-omote'.
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975, pp. 26-30.
NKBZ 25: Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshū, Vol 25. Revised and annotated
     by Usuda Jingorō & Shimma Shin'ichi. Tokyo, 1976.
Jūichi Obata and Takehiko Tesima: 'Further Studies on the Acoustical
     Properties of the Japanese wind Instrument, Syakuhati.'
     In: Proceedings of the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan.
     Tōkyō Imperial University, Faculty of Science, March 1933, pp. 125-134.
Torsten Olafsson: Kaidō Honsoku, 1628: The Komosō's Fuke
     Shakuhachi Credo. On Early 17th Century Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology. Publ. by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California, 2003.
     Includes a CD-ROM with the author's complete M.A. thesis on
     the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
     Purchasable at
Edmond Papinot: Historical and geographical dictionary of Japan,
     with an introduction to the new ed. by Terence Barrow.
     Tuttle Publishing, Rutland, Vermont, 1989.
Edmond Papinot: Dictionnaire japonais-francais des noms principaux de
     l'histoire et de la g?ographie du Japon suivi de
     17 appendices sur les empereurs, shōgun, nengō,
     sectes bouddhistes, provinces, d?partements, mesures, etc.
     Hongkong, 1899.
Francis T. Piggott: The Music and Musical Instruments of Japan
     with notes ny T.L. Southgate. London, 1893, 1909, 1969.
Edgar W. Pope: 'The Shakuhachi, the Fuke-shū, and the Scholars : a historical controversy.'
     In: Journal of Hokusei Gakuen Women's Junior College 36, 31-44,
     Hokusei Gakuen University, Sapporo, 2000.
     Download URL:
William N. Porter: The Miscellany of a Japanese Priest.
     Being a Translation of Tsure-zure Gusa.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, Tokyo, 1914, 1976.
Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Emptiness and Temporality.
     Buddhism and Medieval Japanese Poetics.
     Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 2008.
Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Murmured Conversations.
     A Treatise on Poetry and Buddhism by the Poet-Monk Shinkei.
     Stanford University Press, California, 2008.
Kurt Reinhard: Chinesische Musik. Erik Rüth Verlag, Eisenach,
     Kassel, 1956.
Lauren Nagaryu Rubin: The Shakuhachi and the Didjeridu :
     two case studies of historical iconology, performance practice
     and their relation to avian respiration and song.
     Ph.D. Monash University. Faculty of Arts. School of Music – Conservatorium, 2009.
     Download from:
James H. Sanford: 'Shakuhachi Zen. The Fukeshū and Komusō.'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica XXXII, 4. Sophia University, Tokyo, 1977.
James H. Sanford: Zen-man Ikkyū.
     Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1981.
Ruth Fuller Sasaki, trsl.: The Record of Lin-Chi.
     The Institute for Zen Studies, Kyōto, 1975.
The SAT Daizōkyō Text Database. University of Tokyo.
William Scott Wilson: The Unfettered Mind. Writings of the Zen master
     to the Sword Master. Tokyo, New York, San Fransisco, 1986.
Shibayama Zenkei: A Flower Does Not Talk.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc. 1970, 1975.
Eido Shimano: The Book of Rinzai. The Recorded Sayings
     of Zen Master Rinzai (Linji).
     The Zen Studies Society Press, New York, 2005.
Shōsōin no Gakki (Musical Intruments in the Shōsōin). Edited by
     Shōsōin Office. Authors: Hayashi Kenzō, Kishibe Shigeo, Taki
     Ryōichi & Shiba Sukehiro. Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sha, Tokyo, 1967.
Shūhū Yokō, edited by Mori Hikotarō. Publ. by the Kōkoku-ji,
     Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.
Laurence Sickman and Alexander Soper: The Art and Architecture of
     China. Penguin Book, Harmondsworth, 1956, 1968.
Norman Stanfield: The Kinko-ryū and its San Koten Honkyoku.
     M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1977.
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     London, 1882. Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, London 1977.
Michael Sullivan: The Arts of China. Cardinal/Sphere Books,
     London, 1967, 1973.
Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Essays in Zen Buddhism I, II & III.
     Rider & Company, London, Vol. I: 1950, 1980. Vol. II: 1953, 1980.
     Vol. III: 1953, 1977.
Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Zen and Japanese Culture.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1970, 1973.
Takahashi Kūzan: Fukeshū-shi. Sono shakuhachi sōhō no gakuri.
     Fukeshū-shi kankōkai, Tokyo, 1979.
Takahashi Tone: Tozan-ryū: An Innovation of the
     Shakuhachi Tradition from Fuke-shū to Secularism.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     The Florida State University, 1990. Purchasable at:
Takeda Kyōson: Komusō: Sei to zoku no igyōsha-tachi,
     "Komusō: Odd People of the Sacred and the Worldly."
     Sanitsu Shobō, Tōkyō, 1997.
Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Nihon no dentō, Vol. 7.
     Tankōsha, Kyōto, 1968.
Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Performing Arts of Japan
     Vol. 5. Transl. from Japanese by Don Kenny.
     Walker/Weatherhill, New York & Tokyo, 1971.
Tomimori Kyozan: Myōan Shakuhachi Tsūkai.
     Myōan Kyozan Bōdōyūkai, Tokyo, 1979.
Tonomura Hitomi: 'Forging the Past: Medieval Counterfeit Documents.'
     Monumenta Nipponica 40, 1, 1985, pp. 69-96.
Toyohara Sumiaki: Taigenshō (original dated 1512)
     1933 edition, 4 vols., edited by Masamune Atsuo
     Nihon Koten Zenshu Kankokai, Tokyo, 1933
     The entire 1933 edition may be downloaded
     from this location:
     - Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library, University of Toronto

Tsuge Gen'ichi: 'The History of the Kyotaku.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
     Available online at:
Paul Yachita Tsuchihashi: Japanese Chronologicqal Tables
     from 601 to 1872 A.D.
     Sophia University Press, Tokyo, 1952.
Tsuge Gen'ichi: 'The History of the Kyotaku.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
     Available online at:

Tsukitani Tsuneko, Seyama Tōru & Simura Satoshi:
     'The Shakuhachi: The Instrument and its Music,
     Change and Diversification.'
     In: 'Contemporary Music Review', 1994, Vol. 8, Issue 2,
     pp. 103-129. Translated by Riley Kelly Lee.
     Link to free download:
Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'The Shakuhachi and its music.' Pages 145-168
     in: The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music.
     SOAS Musicology Series. 466 pages.
     Publ. by Ashgate Publishing Group, England & USA, 2008.
Royall Tyler, trsl.: Selected Writings of Suzuki Shōsan.
     Cornell University, East Asia Papers, New York, 1977
Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shimada Ongaku Shuppan, Tokyo, 3rd impr., 1984.
Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi. Revised and expanded edition.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2002.
Burton Watson, trsl.: The Zen Teachings of Master Lin-chi. A trans-
     lation of the Lin-chi Lu. Columbia University Press, 1999.
William Watson: China. William Watson, London, 1961.
William Watson: The Genius of China. Catalogue printed for the
     exhibition of archaeological finds of the People's Republic of
     China at the Royal Academy, London, Sept. 29, 1973, to Jan. 23, 1974.
     Times Newspapers Ltd., London, 1973.
Elliot Weisgarber: 'The Honkyoku of the Kinko-ryū:
     Some Principles of its Organization.'
     In: Ethnomusicology XII, 3 (September), 1968, pp. 313-344.
Wen Wu (Chinese periodical of ancient matters). Special issue
     about the excavations at Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan.
     Wen Wu Publishing Co., Beijing, July 1972.
Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (English language:
Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (Japanese language:
Wong Wah-Sang: 'The Music of Buddha Nature - Blowing Zen on the Shakuhachi.'
     In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science,
     Vol. 4, No. 8, June 2014, pp. 64-80.
     Link to online PDF:
Yamaguchi Masayoshi: Shakuhachi-shi gaisetsu.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2005.
Zengaku Jiten, ed. by Jimbo Nyoten & Andō Bun'ei,
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